The Format of the ACT Science Test
The ACT Science Test is the last of the 4 main sections that make up the ACT exam. You will have 35 minutes to complete the test, which has 40 questions and 6-7 individual passages. There is some bad news. The ACT Science section comes right after the ACT Reading Test, which is normally a little exhausting. There’s no break in between theses sections, and you will need to work very quickly to answer every question in less than 1 minute.
There is also some good news. In this blog post, we introduce you to the format of the ACT Science section and the types of passages you’ll encounter so you scan, comprehend, and analyze data quickly enough to raise your ACT Science score.
Spoiler: the Science Test doesn’t really require you to know much science.
The section’s official name, the ACT Science Test, is somewhat misleading. Each passage does cover topics the sciences (e.g. Biology, Physics and Chemistry), but you are not tested more on interpretation than knowledge. In other words, you don’t normally need to know much of what you learned in high school. It can be helpful to know things like the parts of a cell, but you will normally be provided with this information. Rather, the test mostly asks you to analyze experimental and research data and evaluate theories and hypotheses. They give you the information you need (mostly) and a set a questions. Your job is to assemble the information from the text, graphs, data tables, and diagrams of experimental equipment and solve the questions.
So your high school science classes are useful (pay attention!), but you can score well on the ACT Science section even if you don’t remember much from freshman biology.
The 3 Passage Types of the ACT Science Test
There are 3 different passage types on the ACT Science test: Data Representation, Research Summary and Conflicting Viewpoints.
Data Representation passages usually show tables and graphs — data collected from an experiment that is not explicitly discussed — and ask the student to interpret the results in different ways. There will be 2-4 Data Representation passages on your test.
Take a look at this figure and the question that follows it from a Data Representation passage:
Based on the figure 1, when 5g of LiCl was added to 50g of H2O, the temperature:
A. decreased, because heat was removed from the solution.
B. decreased, because heat was added to the solution.
C. increased, because heat was removed from the solution.
D. increased, because heat was added to the solution.
As you can see, the question asks the student to directly interpret the graph in Figure 1. These types of questions, on which the test-taker is required to identify a pattern or trend in the data, are very common on the test.
There are usually between 2-4 Research Summary passages, which detail the setup, procedure, and results of an experiment. Questions may ask the student to analyze the data, explain various aspects of the scientific method, and interpret hypotheses. It is all pretty common for Research Summary passages to ask you to synthesize information provided in different parts of the passage, which normally contains a combination of graphs, diagrams and tables.
Take a look at this example question from a Research Summary passage:
In Experiment 1, the molecules of which of the following polymers spent the longest amount of time in the column?
All you need to do is interpret the following graph …
but the only way to understand Figure 2 is to read the passage before it:
Smaller molecules easily diffuse into the pores. Larger molecules do not as easily diffuse into the pores, or are larger than the pores. Therefore, smaller molecules spend more time in the column than do larger molecules, causing the components of the mixture to separate. As solvent containing a component of the mixture exits the column through the detector, a peak is plotted versus time (starting from injection). The portion of solvent corresponding to a peak is called a fraction. The time corresponding to the top of a peak is the fraction’s retention time (RT).
As you can see, if you know what to expect, the question is easy if you know what to expect.
Questions that require a test-taker to identify a particular point on a graph or a trial from a data table are fairly common and one of the more straightforward types of questions.
There will be 1 Conflicting Viewpoints passage on your test, and it will be markedly different from the other types of passages. It will introduce a general topic and then 2-4+ different viewpoints, usually hypotheses or theories, on the subject.
Take a look at this example of a question from a Conflicting Viewpoints passage:
According to Scientist 2’s viewpoint, compared to the altitude at which a stony asteroid would have exploded in Earth’s atmosphere, a comet of similar size would most likely have exploded at:
A. the same altitude
B. a higher altitude
C. a slightly lower altitude
D. a much lower altitude
Conflicting Viewpoints passages ask questions like this one about important details from both the introduction and from the various viewpoint discussions. Since there are few graphs or tables in these passages, the test-taker’s reading comprehension skills are most important here.
What makes the ACT Science Test difficult?
Unlike the ACT Math test, the ACT Science does not get more difficult: you might find the last passage really easy. Rather, students tend to find questions difficult if they are not familiar with the passage types or the science topics themselves (Biology, Chemistry, and Physics content is most common). Proper time management is also really important: students need to pace themselves properly. Finally, students need to be comfortable combining information from different graphs, tables, diagrams and text descriptions. This is where guided practice via an ACT course or tutoring becomes really useful. And of course, completing a bunch of ACT Science practice tests is certainly useful.
When studying for the ACT Science exam, understanding its format and structure is very important. Preparing for the passages and types of questions you’ll likely see will be a cornerstone of your ACT Science test preparation and we wish you all the best as you prepare for your ACT exam! Good luck!
Read our Ultimate Guide to ACT Test Prep — it summarizes everything you’ll need to know, whether you are preparing to take the ACT next month or in a few years.
Thinking about getting a tutor for ACT Science prep? Our online ACT test prep will teach you to apply these strategies and many more for success on the ACT. Get in touch to schedule a free lesson or take a free practice test.